Sue Responsibility of Authorship of Sutardji Calzoum Bachri (IV)

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Written by Nurel Javissyarqi
Translated by Agus B. Harianto

IV

From quotation of Dr. Abu Hanifah’s writing, Menyambut Ceramah Mochtar Lubis, Renungan Tentang “Manusia Indonesia Masa Kini” at part Lahirlah Sumpah Pemuda:

Buku ini ditulis (keterangan sebelumnya; ada membicarakan sifat-sifat manusia Indonesia, dalam cara seperti dikemukakan oleh Saudara Mochtar Lubis. Dicetak tahun 1920, Haarlem, pengarangnya Prof. J.C. van Eerde, guru besar Universitas Amsterdam dan Direktur dari Koloniaal Institute te Amsterdam. Judulnya: Inleiding tot de Volkenkude van Nederlandsch Indie) dalam tahun 1920, dan dalam tahun-tahun 20-an itu timbul Renaissance Indonesia dengan gerakan Pemuda Indonesia, dan lahirnya Sumpah Pemuda, dan perangsang lagu kebangsaan Indonesia Raya. Meletusnya pemberontakan PKI yang sebenarnya lebih banyak dapat dikatakan pemberontakan masyarakat Indonesia yang tak puas. Menurut hemat saya, yang terbanyak mereka yang di-digoel-kan kolonialis Belanda, malahan anggota-anggota Sarekat Islam di mana-mana. Mau tak mau sekarang harus diakui, bahwa vitalitas rakyat menentang kolonialis Belanda pada waktu itu Sarekat Islam. Belanda memakai kesempatan pemberontakan PKI buat menghantam sekaligus musuh mereka yang lebih berbahaya, ialah Sarekat Islam.

Pada tahun 1928, lahir PNI yang umumnya disokong oleh pemuda-pemuda Indonesia yang terpelajar. Arus keras perasaan kebangsaan menyebabkan pada tahun 1928 lahir ikrar: Sumpah Pemuda, dan setelah itu, bangsa Indonesia tidak lagi bangsa Indonesia yang digambarkan oleh orientalis-orientalis Belanda, seperti Prof. J.C. van Eerde.

Dunia di sekeliling Indonesia bergolak, dan bangsa Indonesia tidak tinggal diam. Malahan saya berpendapat, tanpa Renaissance Pemuda Indonesia dalam tahun 1928, spontanitas pemberontakan dan perjuangan total dari rakyat Indonesia dalam tahun 1945, tidak mungkin.

Harus secara jujur diakui secara blak-blakan, bahwa misalnya Undang-Undang Dasar 1945, dan Pancasila yang begitu diagung-agungkan itu, tidak mungkin lahir tanpa Renaissance Pemuda Indonesia, tahun 1928 dan seterusnya.

“This book was written (the previous statement; some were talking about Indonesia’s human nature, in the manner as stated by the Mr. Mochtar Lubis. Printed in 1920, Haarlem, author is Prof. J.C. van Eerde, professor of the Universitas Amsterdam and Director of Kolonial Institute te Amsterdam. entitle: Inleiding tot de Volkenkude van Nederlandsch Indie) in 1920, and in the years 20s there was Indonesia’s Renaissance with movement of Pemuda Indonesia, and the birth of Sumpah Pemuda, and stimulating the national anthem Indonesia Raya. The outbreak of rebellion of PKI was actually more can be said to the people of Indonesia whom were not satisfied. In my opinion, the most of them were exiled by the Dutch colonialists; even members of the Sarekat Islam were everywhere. Like or not, it must be admitted, that the vitality of the people against the Dutch colonialists at that time was in Sarekat Islam. The Dutch took the opportunity to make the PKI rebellion to strike their more dangerous enemies at once, which is the Sarekat Islam.

In 1928, PNI was born which is generally supported by the educated Indonesian youths. Strong heart of nationality caused the pledge was born in 1928: Sumpah Pemuda (Youth Pledge), and after that, the nation of Indonesia is no longer the nation described by the Dutch orientalists, such as Prof. J.C. van Eerde “.

“The world around Indonesia was in agitation and turbulent, and the Indonesian people did not stay still. In fact in my opinion, without Renaissance of Indonesian Youth in 1928, spontaneity of the rebellion and total struggling of Indonesian people in 1945, was impossible”.

“It must be honestly and frankly admitted, that for example the Undang-Undang Dasar 1945, and Pancasila that are so glorified, were impossible to born without the Renaissance of Indonesian youth, in 1928 and so on”.

[Taken from the book of Manusia Indonesia [Sebuah Pertanggungjawaban], Lectures on April 6, 1977, at Taman Ismail Marzuki, Jakarta by Mochtar Lubis, published by YOI, second edition, March 2008].

***

When we were discussing about the mantra even further, I intend to prioritize anything performed. The spirit motion of the history of struggle and various scratching colored it. On the traces of sense of Sang Harimau Sumatra (the Sumatran Tiger) as predicate of Muchtar Lubis, which is still spreading until now or it’s over than 33 years, precisely in the writing of Atmakusumah entitle David Hill Mengamati Mochtar Lubis, Kompas, March 8, 2010, and it can be ensured it follows the progress of meaningful of about Indonesia.

He is the one who could stir the point of Indonesia’s stage by his speech in 1977, with the school of one of Indonesia’s human nature; “reluctant and unwillingly to responsible for any his actions” printed with the preface by Jakob Oetama, with the addition of debate material or opinions of; Margono Djojohadikusumo, Sarlito Wirawan Sarwono, Dr. Abu Hanifah, and Wildan Yatim, which he received well, like a mirror reflecting the face of his criticists.

It’s over than 30 years (Mochtar Lubis [1977] Vs Sutardji Calzoum Bahri [2007]), the character predicted by journalists that it has mental of striving is increasingly obvious, if we remembered on the thought of Tardji’s words: “… secara ekstrem boleh dikatakan penyair tidak bisa dimintakan pertanggungjawaban atas ciptaannya, atas puisinya (extremely we may say that the poet can not be asked the responsibility of his creation, of his poetry)”.

Before further, let’s paid attention to the literary man Mochtar Lubis (he was born in Padang, West Sumatra, March 7, 1922 – and he died in Jakarta, July 2, 2004), about mantra and such kinds in the same book, on pages 28-29, and paragraphs at the end of the fourth feature:

Kepercayaan serupa ini membawa manusia Indonesia jadi tukang bikin lambang. Kita percaya pada jimat dan jampe. Untuk mengusir hantu, kita memasang sajen dan bunga di empat sudut halaman, dan untuk menghindarkan nahas atau mengelakkan bala, kita membuang tujuh macam kembang di tengah simpang empat. Kita mengarang mantra. Dengan jimat dan mantra kita merasa yakin telah berbuat yang tegas untuk menjamin keselamatan dan kebahagiaan atau kesehatan kita”.

Sampai sekarang manusia Indonesia yang modern pun, yang telah bersekolah, telah berpendidikan modern, masih terus juga membuat jimat, mantra, dan lambang. Salah seorang dukun lambang yang paling hebat di Indonesia tak lain mendiang bekas Presiden Soekarno, mantranya di zaman Jepang: “Amerika kita setrika, Inggris kita linggis”, cukup lama membikin banyak manusia Indonesia mabuk, bahwa kita memang melakukan demikian, dan kemudian ketika berkuasa sendiri, maka mantra-mantranya tambah hebat, seperti Nekolim, Vivere Pericoloso, Berdikari, Jarek, Usdek, Resopim, dan sebagainya, hingga tiba saatnya wahyu cakraningratnya lepas dari dirinya, dan segala mantra dan jimatnya ternyata kosong, hampa dan tak bertuah sama sekali.

Kemudian kita membuat mantra dan semboyan baru, jimat-jimat baru, Tritura, Ampera, Orde Baru, the rulle of law, pemberantasan korupsi, kemakmuran merata dan adil, insan pembangunan. Manusia Indonesia sangat mudah cenderung percaya pada menara dan semboyan dan lambang yang dibuatnya sendiri. Negara kita berdasar Pancasila, kata kita semua, dan kita pun lalu mengaso, penuh keyakinan dan kepuasan, bahwa setelah mengucapkannya, maka masyarakat Pancasila itu telah tercipta. Tak ubahnya sebagai seorang tukang sulap yang mengucapkan bim salabim. Nah, keluar kelinci dari dalam topi.

Apakah manusia Indonesia akan terus jadi manusia mantra, semboyan dan lambang, atau manusia yang bisa berbuat,melaksanakan, menciptakan, dan bukan manusia yang hanya bermain dengan kata-kata saja yang lama-lama jadi hampa dan tiada bermakna sesuatu apalagi baik bagi yang memakainya maupun bagi yang menerimanya? Jawabannya saya serahkan pula pada saudara-saudara.

“The belief like this brings Indonesian people became the symbol maker. We believe in amulets and mantra. To repel ghosts, we put offering of flowers or food in the four corners of pages, and it’s to avoid bad luck or circumvent fateful reinforcements, we dispose the seven kinds of flowers in the middle of the intersection. We write the mantra. With amulets and mantra we feel confident the firm had done to ensure the safety and happiness or our health.”

“Until now, even modern people of Indonesia, educated people, have a modern education, they keep to make talismans, the mantra, and symbols. One of the most powerful symbol of shamans in Indonesia is none else but the late former President Soekarno, his mantra under Japanese colonization: “Amerika kita Setrika, Inggris kita linggis‘, it was long enough to make Indonesian people drunk, that we indeed do so, and then when we were free and rule our own country, then the mantras increasingly superb, such as Nekolim, Vivere Pericoloso, Berdikari, Jarek, Usdek, Resopim, and so on, until the time of his cakraningrat revelation came loose of him, and all his mantras and talisman was empty, hollow and not magical at all.”

“Then we made new mantras and motto, new amulets, Tritura, Ampera, Orde Baru, the rule of law, fighting corruption, fair and equal prosperity, human of development. Indonesian people are very easy to tend to believe the towers and the mottos and symbols made by themselves. Our country has foundation on Pancasila, we all said so, and then we rested, full of confidence and satisfaction, which after we said it, then Pancasila’s society has created. Similar a magician who says bim salabim. And then the rabbit got out of the hat “.

“Will Indonesian people keep to be the man of mantra, motto and symbol, or human being that can do, execute, create, and not the man who is merely playing with words that would be gone so empty and meaningless and far from good, whether for those who wear it or for those who receive it? I leave the answer to you all”.

***

A half part of section IV has been interpreted by the predecessors, and now it’s my time to state.

The writers who are not afraid of jail, starve of his family, also the courage in blood that invites surrounding human inspiration; Mochtar Lubis, Pramoedya Ananta Toer, W.S. Renda, and so on. They are responsible for their behavior of fate and works of creation, their brotherhood is harmonious, style tone of their struggle to the nation doesn’t want to create a monument, embedded their names. The most important is their efforts had been tried towards the estuary, to awaken the dark ages of ignorance, protracted stupidity, and propaganda plunges forgetfulness to the true searching.

I alluded some Hadith Qudsi: From Abu Huraira ra says: Rasulullah SAW said: “Allah says: I am just as My slave thinks I am, (i.e. I am able to do for him what he thinks I can do for him), and I am with him if he remembers Me (Hadith Shahi Bukhari narrated by Abu Hurairah.)” It doesn’t mean that the God doesn’t responsible to everything, but man is given the freedom at each level of risk, to get reward in accordance with a predetermined grade by Him. So the responsibility will be always there. If not, why should there is a hell and heaven. The God, indeed, responsible to the people of Prophet Musa as. and so on whom follow His words.

God, exalted be He, says: (Thereupon We revealed to Moses: ‘Strike the sea with your staff’), and he struck it, (whereupon it parted,) it split into twelve parts, (and each part was as a mighty mountain,) between each of these parts were paths which they followed, such that not even the saddles or the felts of the riders were touched by water. [Surah Asy Syu’ara, ayah 63rd from the Tafsir Jalalain, written by Imam Jalaluddin Al-Mahalli and Imam Jalaluddin As-Suyuthi, translated into Bahasa Indonesia by Bahrun Abubakar, published by Sinar Baru Algensindo, Bandung, fifth reprinted, 2001].

***

Tardji was quite successful, or maybe he succeeded to spread the school of his mantra in the literary of Indonesia. He made the criticists who usually sharps eyed by the theories in their pocket, such as the logic of language, etc. The criticists were covered by the power of his poems until they got to find comparison or his will be adjusted with the achievements of Arthur Rimbaud, Jalaludddin Rumi, Hamzah Fansuri, and resistance of Dionysus to the Apollo, as Nietzsche was simply. Without showing their own breasts or juxtaposed next to the Tardji’s works, as if the reader was told to search for and guessed the truth. The reader who doesn’t want to continue the vision of reality of similarity they compare from different eras became hypnotized; it’s very different from the teaching of fate of their life which transformed into their own achievement.

The literary man and journalist, Mochtar Lubis, explained evidence of Soekarno’s mantra efficacy when he was ruling, but when the light of his cakraningrat took off, in fact Indonesia remain underdeveloped, not as imagined anesthetized people. And presidential power of the poet Tardji, his authority as the king of mantras, is still echoing until now, look at or click the sheet of Kompas newspaper, October 24, 2010, article by Salyaputra entitled Pertemuan Dua Presiden Penyair.

With the concept of his mantra, Tardji rebelled the order of poetry and the criticists are powerless, overwhelmed by the rajah of his words. And I can agglomerate that Isyarat, a collection of essays by Sutardji Calzoum Bachri, published by Indonesia Tera, 2007, has abundance power of his suggestion. Certainly, it’s no more than founded on mature confidence, but do not we also need to carefully search the origin? Does he still loyal to his own concept or he have made affair to other schools? Or he mixed up to create the blindly prestige?

Tardji desired to make tradition more sacred through Indonesian language by his mantras with a spell with bowling over the effect of his concept on spontaneity power it has, since he was serious to be a poet:

Menulis puisi bagi saya adalah membebaskan kata-kata, yang berarti mengembalikan kata pada awal mulanya. Pada mulanya adalah kata. Dan kata pertama adalah mantera. Maka menulis puisi bagi saya adalah mengembalikan kata kepada mantera.“, (Kredo Puisi Sutardji Calzoum Bahri, tertera Bandung 30 Maret 1973, dalam buku O Amuk Kapak, tiga kumpulan sajak, terbitan Departemen Pendidikan Nasional Tahun Anggaran 2004).

“Writing poetry, for me, is liberating the word, which means returns the word at the origin. In the beginning was the word. And the first word is mantra. So, writing poetry for me is to return the word to the mantra.” (Poetry Creed of Sutardji Calzoum Bahri, listed on Bandung March 30, 1973, in the book O Amuk Kapak, three anthology, published by Departemen Pendidikan Nasional Tahun Anggaran 2004).

***

It is hypnotizing to the complacent, but is it really running or succeeds properly, as the common mantra? The rumor said that the mantra is free from the content of meaning, but I could not help wondering, why he made a kind of essay Pengantar Kapak. I also suspected, perhaps his mantra doesn’t have any magical power. At least I’ve never heard or seen its reader possessed when they recited it. Regarding the criticists interpreted it, let’s figured out the level of their knowledge.

If the nature of Indonesian literature is similar to nuance of literature at the Mecca in the past, the poets gathered and issued the greatness of their each poems in front of the Ka’ba, it is obvious that Tardji’s poems just a trick word, deceptive of language without the substance of the mantra power. We know unen unen-or makolah (some advice, understanding); the words in the poem have powers like a magic which is from the poetry and a part of it has wisdom. And then when we looked at Tardji’s mantras, does it have magical power? Besides the meaning, because he was resigned to liberate the words from the burden of understanding, then let’s take look at one of his works:

Mantera

lima percik mawar
tujuh sayap merpati
sesayat langit perih
dicabik puncak gunung
sebelas duri sepi
dalam dupa rupa
tiga menyan luka
mengasapi duka

puah!
kau jadi Kau!
Kasihku

From the poem of Sutardji Calzoum Bachri above, I remembered to the words of Mochtar Lubis, “…bim salabim, nah… keluar kelinci dari dalam topi (… bim salabim, and then… came out a rabbit from the hat) ‘.

Let’s pay attention for a while to quotation of his book: “Sajak-sajaknya pernah menjadi perdebatan di meja redaksi Horison, yakni antara Taufik Ismail dengan H.B. Jassin. H.B. Jassin menolak sajak-sajak Sutardji untuk dimuat di Horison, sementara Taufik Ismail justru sebaliknya. Ia berkeras ingin memuatkan sajak-sajak Sutardji di majalah Horison. Akhirnya H.B. Jassin mengalah dan sajak-sajak Sutardji Calzoum Bachri muncul di majalah tersebut”. (His poems have been debated in the editorial desk of Horizon, which was between H.B. Jassin and Taufik Ismail. H.B. Jassin refuses Sutardji’s poems to be published on the Horizon, but Taufik Ismail was opposite. He insisted to publish the Sutardji’s poems in the magazine Horizon. Finally, H.B. Jassin relented and the poems of Sutardji Calzoum Bachri appeared in the magazine”.

After I read it, it looks that rebellion of poetry tradition he did through the mantras was supported / facilitated, then his path of poet was straight forward although the style of his poetry can be classified inconsequential under the pattern of possessed into the space of stupidity. I think other than his poem above, there are more disorderly to rely the sound and also the possibility of crazy, which in essence set about the criticists, and also the pattern of underestimating other poets, then the more reckless he had been finalizing his concept: “ tidak bisa dimintakan pertanggungjawaban atas ciptaannya, atas puisinya (can not be asked the responsibility of his creation, of his poetry)”.

***

At the previous section I has explained, some of the mantra is also taken from the Holy Books, such as the Quran, the example sentence: “Bismillahirrahmanirrahim, if made to be mantra, it is only taken two-word, which is Ya Rahman, Ya Rahim“.

The mantra hide its meaning, such as Alif lam ro’, Alif lam mim, Yaa sin, if we use it as mantra, as wird, just read the letter at the end; ro’, mim, sin, and so on, and also taken from 99 of asmaul Husna. Furthermore, we can see it on the Book of Syamsul Ma’arif, by Sheikh Ahmad Ali al-Buni. For the sake of nothing going stray or and misleading, we can find out on the work of Al Imam Ibn Qayyim Al-Jauziyah entitle Al Firasat which is still within the scope of His light.

I remembered when I was studying the Java’s mantras; the magical power of serat jiwa, tapak sakti, lembu sekilan, pancasona, and others. Unfortunately, those writings or its rajah lost, I burn it. At least, I’ve enjoyed its efficacy or its potency, beside the charm of sikep onto kusumo that if I raced motorcycle and fell, I had safe and no injure. Then came two faces; whether the Tardji’s mantra is merely intelligence figure of “intellectual shaman” who affirmed by the criticists? Hopefully not misguided and misleading. Or is it really the holy magical mantras?

Observing the pattern of Tardji that “secara ekstrem boleh dikatakan penyair tidak bisa dimintakan pertanggungjawaban atas ciptaannya, atas puisinya (extremely we may say that the poet can not be asked the responsibility of his creation, of his poetry)”, he seen as shaman that doesn’t want to responsible, he is trying to obscure the power of penance and contemplate through the closing mantra that washed off his soft trail tread. And thus is categorized as cheating and irresponsible. The formations are indeed there and he uses that way.

To return to the view of Mochtar Lubis was like establishing broken grasses in the middle of the capital. Yet the social inequality more blind to the eyes, injustice of corruption and such is gripping the people of Indonesia, while his poet to make the mantras, resembling intrigue of ignorance is conspicuous.

Why Tardji imposed to put the Sumpah Pemuda into the poetry as the pattern of his mantras? Because the spiritual of oath similar to the mantras, and curses too. In this section, I wanted to breathe much longer, but I stopped here, then I continued to section V, then so will it be …

http://sastra-indonesia.com/2011/06/menggugat-tanggung-jawab-kepenyairan-sutardji-calzoum-bachri-iv/

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